Mapping Manuscript Migrations

SPARQL tutorials

The queries described here provide the building blocks you will need to explore the MMM dataset using SPARQL.

Refer to the MMM Data Model and the MMM Schema for more information about the classes and properties used in MMM. Click on the YASGUI link at the end of each query description to open that query in yasgui.org, where you can run the query yourself against the MMM triplestore.


Provenance event queries

Use these queries to find data about manuscripts and their associated provenance events.


Query 1: Find manuscripts

To build a query about manuscripts, you must define what a manuscript is. In MMM, we’ve followed the FRBRoo model and defined manuscripts as Manifestation Singletons. It is beyond the scope of this tutorial to explain the full implications of what this means, but in brief: in the FRBR hierarchical world of Work -> Expression -> Manifestation -> Item, a Manifestation Singleton is both a unique manifestation and a unique item combined into one object. You can learn more about FRBRoo here. The good news is that you don’t really need to understand FRBR to successfully query MMM data. Just remember that most data related to manuscripts maps to the class (efrbroo:F4_Manifestation_Singleton), and include the following statement in any query you build about manuscripts.

In the following queries, we’ll call the manuscript variable ?manuscript, but you could call it ?manifestation_singleton, or very_old_book, or whatever you like. Variable names don’t matter, but everything else in the query does. This includes punctuation and capitalization.

We’ll use a shortcut to connect our variable with our object, a. This is a shorthand for the RDF type predicate. Essentially what this statement says is: a manuscript is a Manifestation Singleton. In our SPARQL query, that statement looks like this:

?manuscript a efrbroo:F4_Manifestation_Singleton .

https://api.triplydb.com/s/nZwMIDBR

PREFIX rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#>
PREFIX efrbroo: <http://erlangen-crm.org/efrbroo/>

SELECT * WHERE {
  ?manuscript a efrbroo:F4_Manifestation_Singleton .
}
LIMIT 10


——

Query 1.2 Find provenance events and the places associated with them

Now that we’ve successfully found manuscripts, we can find provenance events associated with them. Provenance events in MMM can refer to either transactions (ecrm:P30_transferred_custody_of), or simply the ownership of a manuscript (mmms:observed_manuscript). If the location where that event occurred is known, the provenance event will link to that place via the ecrm:P7_took_place_at property.

https://api.triplydb.com/s/6H_EHcba

PREFIX skos: <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#>
PREFIX rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>
PREFIX rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#>
PREFIX efrbroo: <http://erlangen-crm.org/efrbroo/>
PREFIX ecrm: <http://erlangen-crm.org/current/>
PREFIX mmms: <http://ldf.fi/mmm/schema/>

SELECT * WHERE {
  ?manuscript a efrbroo:F4_Manifestation_Singleton.
  ?event_uri ecrm:P30_transferred_custody_of|mmms:observed_manuscript ?manuscript ;
              ecrm:P7_took_place_at ?place_uri .
  ?place_uri skos:prefLabel ?place_label .
}
LIMIT 10


——

Query 1.3: Find manuscripts with provenance events that occurred in a specific place

Modify Query 1.2 with a BIND clause, mandating a specific URI for your place. The query below limits the results to manifestation singletons with provenance events that occurred in Paris. To build a query using a different place, change the ID number at the end of the URI with any other Getty ID number. You can look up Getty ID numbers at the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names.

https://api.triplydb.com/s/yeGSQFqR

PREFIX skos: <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#>
PREFIX rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>
PREFIX rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#>
PREFIX efrbroo: <http://erlangen-crm.org/efrbroo/>
PREFIX ecrm: <http://erlangen-crm.org/current/>
PREFIX mmms: <http://ldf.fi/mmm/schema/>

SELECT * WHERE {
  BIND (<http://ldf.fi/mmm/place/tgn_7008038> AS ?place_uri)
  ?manuscript a efrbroo:F4_Manifestation_Singleton.
  ?event_uri ecrm:P30_transferred_custody_of|mmms:observed_manuscript ?manuscript ;
              ecrm:P7_took_place_at ?place_uri .
  ?place_uri skos:prefLabel ?place_label .
}
LIMIT 10


——

Query 1.4: Find manuscripts with provenance events that occurred in multiple different locations

Use a VALUES clause to specify each location’s uri as the desired values for the ?place_uri variable in your query. The query below returns provenance events that occurred in Paris or Rouen.

https://api.triplydb.com/s/vQuQX43Q

PREFIX skos: <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#>
PREFIX rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>
PREFIX rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#>
PREFIX efrbroo: <http://erlangen-crm.org/efrbroo/>
PREFIX ecrm: <http://erlangen-crm.org/current/>
PREFIX mmms: <http://ldf.fi/mmm/schema/>

SELECT * WHERE {
  VALUES ?place_uri {<http://ldf.fi/mmm/place/tgn_7008929> <http://ldf.fi/mmm/place/tgn_7008038>}
  ?event_uri ecrm:P7_took_place_at ?place_uri ;
              ecrm:P30_transferred_custody_of|mmms:observed_manuscript ?manuscript .
  ?place_uri skos:prefLabel ?place_label .
  ?manuscript a efrbroo:F4_Manifestation_Singleton.
}
LIMIT 100


——

Query 1.5: Find manuscripts with provenance events that occurred in a general region

To find all provenance events that occurred within a broader region or country, use the gvp:broaderPreferred* predicate, with the desired region’s uri as its object. By adding the asterisk to the end of this predicate, the query will include results not just for the place specified, but also any location within that place, according to the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names hierarchy. The query below returns provenance events that took place in France.

https://api.triplydb.com/s/Cr8csSSo

PREFIX skos: <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#>
PREFIX rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>
PREFIX rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#>
PREFIX efrbroo: <http://erlangen-crm.org/efrbroo/>
PREFIX ecrm: <http://erlangen-crm.org/current/>
PREFIX mmms: <http://ldf.fi/mmm/schema/>
PREFIX gvp: <http://vocab.getty.edu/ontology#>

SELECT * WHERE {    
  ?place_uri gvp:broaderPreferred* <http://ldf.fi/mmm/place/tgn_1000070> .
  ?event_uri ecrm:P7_took_place_at ?place_uri ;
              ecrm:P30_transferred_custody_of|mmms:observed_manuscript ?manuscript .
  ?place_uri skos:prefLabel ?place_label .
  ?manuscript a efrbroo:F4_Manifestation_Singleton.
}
LIMIT 500


——

Query 1.6: Count the total number of entities that appear in the results of Query 1.3

To count the total number of entities that occurred in France, use the same query as Query 1.3, but edit the SELECT statement to include the COUNT aggregate function.

https://api.triplydb.com/s/5Ed0HVVH

PREFIX skos: <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#>
PREFIX rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>
PREFIX rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#>
PREFIX efrbroo: <http://erlangen-crm.org/efrbroo/>
PREFIX ecrm: <http://erlangen-crm.org/current/>
PREFIX mmms: <http://ldf.fi/mmm/schema/>
PREFIX gvp: <http://vocab.getty.edu/ontology#>

SELECT COUNT (*) WHERE {
  ?place_uri gvp:broaderPreferred* <http://ldf.fi/mmm/place/tgn_1000070> .
  ?event_uri ecrm:P7_took_place_at ?place_uri ;
    ecrm:P30_transferred_custody_of|mmms:observed_manuscript ?manuscript .
  ?place_uri skos:prefLabel ?place_label .
  ?manuscript a efrbroo:F4_Manifestation_Singleton.
}


——

Query 1.7: Count the total number of provenance events that occured in France

To count only unique provenance events that occurred in France, use the same query as Query 1.4, but add the DISTINCT modifier to the COUNT function, and specify that the ?event_uri variable is the variable you want to count.

https://api.triplydb.com/s/1ft7tdAf

PREFIX skos: <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#>
PREFIX rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>
PREFIX rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#>
PREFIX efrbroo: <http://erlangen-crm.org/efrbroo/>
PREFIX ecrm: <http://erlangen-crm.org/current/>
PREFIX mmms: <http://ldf.fi/mmm/schema/>
PREFIX gvp: <http://vocab.getty.edu/ontology#>

SELECT COUNT (DISTINCT ?event_uri) WHERE {
  ?place_uri gvp:broaderPreferred* <http://ldf.fi/mmm/place/tgn_1000070> .
  ?event_uri ecrm:P7_took_place_at ?place_uri ;
    ecrm:P30_transferred_custody_of|mmms:observed_manuscript ?manuscript .
  ?place_uri skos:prefLabel ?place_label .
  ?manuscript a efrbroo:F4_Manifestation_Singleton.
}


——

Query 1.8: Count the total number of manuscripts that had a provenance event that occurred in France

To count the number of manuscripts that had a provenance event that occurred in France, change the variable in the SELECT statement in Query 1.5 from ?event_uri to ?manuscript. A single manuscript may have many different provenance events in the same location over the course of its history, making the DISTINCT modifier particularly important in this case.

https://api.triplydb.com/s/yo0wZHE3

PREFIX skos: <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#>
PREFIX rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>
PREFIX rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#>
PREFIX efrbroo: <http://erlangen-crm.org/efrbroo/>
PREFIX ecrm: <http://erlangen-crm.org/current/>
PREFIX mmms: <http://ldf.fi/mmm/schema/>
PREFIX gvp: <http://vocab.getty.edu/ontology#>

SELECT COUNT (DISTINCT ?manuscript) WHERE {
  ?place_uri gvp:broaderPreferred* <http://ldf.fi/mmm/place/tgn_1000070> .
  ?event_uri ecrm:P7_took_place_at ?place_uri ;
            ecrm:P30_transferred_custody_of|mmms:observed_manuscript ?manuscript .
  ?place_uri skos:prefLabel ?place_label .
  ?manuscript a efrbroo:F4_Manifestation_Singleton.
}


——

Actor queries

These sets of queries relate to Actors: persons or institutions who produced, bought, or sold manuscripts (manifestation singletons).


Query 2: Find owners of manuscripts

To find the names of Actors who owned manuscripts, use the query below. Manuscripts (manifestation singletons) link to their owners via the ecrm:P51_has_former_or_current_owner predicate. MMM uses skos:prefLabel to link human-readable labels to owners.

https://api.triplydb.com/s/NnS-ONgC

PREFIX skos: <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#>
PREFIX efrbroo: <http://erlangen-crm.org/efrbroo/>
PREFIX ecrm: <http://erlangen-crm.org/current/>
PREFIX rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>
PREFIX rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#>

SELECT ?manuscript ?owner_label WHERE {
  ?manuscript a efrbroo:F4_Manifestation_Singleton ;
	            ecrm:P51_has_former_or_current_owner ?owner .
  ?owner skos:prefLabel ?owner_label.
}
LIMIT 100


——

Query 2.1: Find a specific Actor’s uri

To find a specific Actor’s uri, modify Query 2 with a FILTER clause that includes the CONTAINS function. The query below searches for the uri of an entity that has the string “Phillipps” in its preferred label. This returns the uri for Sir Thomas Phillipps, one of the most important manuscript collectors of the 19th century. To search for a different Actor, edit the string within the quotation marks of the CONTAINS function.

https://api.triplydb.com/s/mPniASzI

PREFIX skos: <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#>
PREFIX efrbroo: <http://erlangen-crm.org/efrbroo/>
PREFIX frbroo: <http://iflastandards.info/ns/fr/frbr/frbroo/>
PREFIX ecrm: <http://erlangen-crm.org/current/>
PREFIX rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>
PREFIX rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#>

SELECT ?manuscript ?owner ?owner_label WHERE {
  ?manuscript a efrbroo:F4_Manifestation_Singleton ;
	ecrm:P51_has_former_or_current_owner ?owner .
  ?owner skos:prefLabel ?owner_label.
  FILTER (CONTAINS (?owner_label,"Phillipps"))
}
LIMIT 100


——

Query 2.2: Find manuscripts owned by Sir Thomas Phillipps

We found Sir Thomas Phillipps’ uri in Query 2.1. Now we can use that uri to find all of the manuscripts (manifestation singletons) he owned. Modify Query 2 using the VALUES clause to specify that the ?owner variable must link to Sir Thomas Phillipps’ uri.

https://api.triplydb.com/s/syvFvlD0

PREFIX skos: <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#>
PREFIX efrbroo: <http://erlangen-crm.org/efrbroo/>
PREFIX frbroo: <http://iflastandards.info/ns/fr/frbr/frbroo/>
PREFIX ecrm: <http://erlangen-crm.org/current/>
PREFIX rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>
PREFIX rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#>

SELECT ?manuscript ?owner ?owner_label WHERE {
  VALUES ?owner { <http://ldf.fi/mmm/actor/bodley_person_73979081> }
  ?manuscript a efrbroo:F4_Manifestation_Singleton ;
	            ecrm:P51_has_former_or_current_owner ?owner .
  ?owner skos:prefLabel ?owner_label.
}


——

Query 2.3: Find manuscripts owned by Sir Thomas Phillipps and Chester Beatty

Search for manuscripts owned by more than one Actor by including multiple VALUE clauses in your query. The query below modifies Query 2.2 to return manuscripts (manifestation singletons) owned by both Sir Thomas Phillipps and Chester Beatty. We first created two separate VALUE clauses for our two separate owners (adding Chester Beatty as ?owner2). We then added ?owner2 as an object of our ?manuscript variable via the same ecrm:P51_has_former_or_current_owner predicate.

https://api.triplydb.com/s/GjlRSUPY

PREFIX rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>
PREFIX rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#>
PREFIX efrbroo: <http://erlangen-crm.org/efrbroo/>
PREFIX skos: <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#>
PREFIX ecrm: <http://erlangen-crm.org/current/>

SELECT ?manuscript ?manuscript_label ?owner ?owner_label WHERE {
  VALUES ?owner { <http://ldf.fi/mmm/actor/bodley_person_73979081> }
	VALUES ?owner2 { <http://ldf.fi/mmm/actor/bibale_6119> }
  ?manuscript a efrbroo:F4_Manifestation_Singleton ;
              skos:prefLabel ?manuscript_label ;
	            ecrm:P51_has_former_or_current_owner ?owner ;
	            ecrm:P51_has_former_or_current_owner ?owner2 .
  ?owner skos:prefLabel ?owner_label.
}


——

Query 2.4: Count manuscripts owned by Sir Thomas Phillipps and Chester Beatty

Modify the previous query to count the number of unique manuscripts collected by Phillipps and Beatty. Add the COUNT function to the SELECT statement, and use the DISTINCT modifier to ensure that the results only count each manuscript once. Remove every variable in this line other than the manuscript variable. The results for this query will be a single row and column showing the number of manuscripts that meet

https://api.triplydb.com/s/TYTfQGf6

PREFIX rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>
PREFIX rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#>
PREFIX efrbroo: <http://erlangen-crm.org/efrbroo/>
PREFIX skos: <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#>
PREFIX ecrm: <http://erlangen-crm.org/current/>

SELECT COUNT (DISTINCT ?manuscript) WHERE {
  VALUES ?owner { <http://ldf.fi/mmm/actor/bodley_person_73979081> }
	VALUES ?owner2 { <http://ldf.fi/mmm/actor/bibale_6119> }
  ?manuscript a efrbroo:F4_Manifestation_Singleton ;
              skos:prefLabel ?manuscript_label ;
	            ecrm:P51_has_former_or_current_owner ?owner ;
	            ecrm:P51_has_former_or_current_owner ?owner2 .
  ?owner skos:prefLabel ?owner_label.
}


——

Query 2.5: Limit results to a specific MMM source dataset

You can limit the results of your query to manuscript data derived from a particular source. Use a similar construction to the FILTER clause we applied in Query 2.1. In this case, we’ll add the STR function to this clause, which will match the results of the ?manuscript variable to a specific string of characters. In the example below we’re matching ?manuscript to the string “bibale” that appears in the uri for manuscript data that comes from the Bibale database. To search for SDBM data, use the string “sdbm”. For Bodleian data, use “bodley”.

This example applies to Query 2.4, but you can use a similar construction in other queries that contain manuscripts. https://api.triplydb.com/s/ZQpw9XTB

PREFIX skos: <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#>
PREFIX efrbroo: <http://erlangen-crm.org/efrbroo/>
PREFIX frbroo: <http://iflastandards.info/ns/fr/frbr/frbroo/>
PREFIX ecrm: <http://erlangen-crm.org/current/>
PREFIX rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>
PREFIX rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#>

SELECT COUNT (DISTINCT ?manuscript) WHERE {
  VALUES ?owner { <http://ldf.fi/mmm/actor/bodley_person_73979081> }
  VALUES ?owner2 { <http://ldf.fi/mmm/actor/bibale_6119> }
  ?manuscript a efrbroo:F4_Manifestation_Singleton ;
              skos:prefLabel ?manuscript_label ;
  	          ecrm:P51_has_former_or_current_owner ?owner ;
  	          ecrm:P51_has_former_or_current_owner ?owner2 .
  ?owner skos:prefLabel ?owner_label.
}
FILTER (CONTAINS (STR(?manuscript),"bibale"))


——

Manuscript production queries

Use these queries to find the dates and places where manuscripts were created.


Query 3: Find manuscript production events and their timespans

Data about the production of manuscripts is mapped to the Production class (ecrm:E12_Production). For a basic query that returns a random sampling of production events, the manuscripts that they resulted in, and the timespans in which they occurred, use the query below. Production events link to the manuscripts they produced via the ecrm:P108_has_produced property, and to their timespans via the ecrm:P4_has_time property.

Notice that for the following query, we don’t need to define our ?manuscript variable as a manifestation singleton. The predicate ecrm:P108_has_produced can only refer to manifestation singletons, so stating it again would be redundant.

https://api.triplydb.com/s/zkXxnccn

PREFIX rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>
PREFIX rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#>
PREFIX ecrm: <http://erlangen-crm.org/current/>

SELECT * WHERE {
  ?production_event ecrm:P108_has_produced ?manuscript ;
                    ecrm:P4_has_time-span ?timespan .
}
LIMIT 100


——

Query 3.1: Find the beginning and end of manuscript production event timespans

Timespans are complicated because we have to model an estimation. This requires many separate statements that, when taken as a whole, can accurately represent a range. The Timespan class (ecrm:E52_Time-Span) consists of several properties that accomplish this. In most cases in MMM, you will only need two of these properties to construct a date range: ecrm:P82a_begin_of_the_begin(the very beginning of a timespan) and ecrm:P82b_end_of_the_end(the very end of the timespan). The query below builds upon Query 3 by returning the values of the beginning and end of the production event timespans.

https://api.triplydb.com/s/EZ_2fY_d

PREFIX rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>
PREFIX rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#>
PREFIX ecrm: <http://erlangen-crm.org/current/>
PREFIX skos: <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#>

SELECT * WHERE {
 ?production_event ecrm:P108_has_produced ?manuscript ;    
                   ecrm:P4_has_time-span ?timespan .
  ?timespan ecrm:P82a_begin_of_the_begin ?begin ;    
        skos:prefLabel ?begin_label .
  ?timespan ecrm:P82b_end_of_the_end ?end ;
        skos:prefLabel ?end_label .
}
LIMIT 100


——

Query 3.2: Limit timespan to a specific range of years

In Query 3.1, our results included integer strings that represented the timespans of the ?begin and ?end variables. To limit those results a specific range of years, we need to extract the year information from those strings, and then filter the results. This requires three additional steps, using the BIND and FILTER clause with additional support from YEAR function. Use the YEAR function to extract the year data from the ?begin variable results, nestled within the BIND clause that assigns the year data as a new variable, ?begin_year. Then apply the FILTER clause to that new variable. We’ve used FILTER in several of the prior queries, but this one will be special because it includes two statements: a value that ?begin_year must be less than (<), and a second value that it must be greater than (>). The && between the two value statements is the symbol for logical and, meaning that both the first and last statement must be true for the value to be included in the results. In the query below, the FILTER clause states that the value for ?begin_year must be less than 1000 and greater than 500.

https://api.triplydb.com/s/Lf4FWleR

PREFIX rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>
PREFIX rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#>
PREFIX ecrm: <http://erlangen-crm.org/current/>
PREFIX skos: <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#>

SELECT * WHERE {
 ?production_event ecrm:P108_has_produced ?manuscript ;    
                   ecrm:P4_has_time-span ?timespan .
  ?timespan ecrm:P82a_begin_of_the_begin ?begin ;    
        skos:prefLabel ?begin_label .
   ?timespan ecrm:P82b_end_of_the_end ?end ;
        skos:prefLabel ?end_label .
  BIND (YEAR (?begin) AS ?begin_year)
  FILTER ( ?begin_year < 1000 && ?begin_year > 500 )
}
LIMIT 2000


——

Advanced queries

These queries combine strategies demonstrated in the previous sections


Query 4.1: Which manuscripts from Sir Thomas Phillipps’ collection are in British libraries now?

This question can only be answered in a modified form with the MMM data. Our Actor class only distinguishes between Persons, Groups, and Actors (the last being a catch-all designation for instances where we don’t know whether an Actor is a Person or a Group). Rather than finding manuscripts owned by libraries, the best we can do is find manuscripts owned by a Group. Another caveat is that our location data for Actors associated with Britain specifically is limited. Much of our geographic association for Actors derives from VIAF, which uses the United Kingdom as the geographic designation for their records associated with Britain. This means that the best way to find British Actors is to search for Actors associated with the United Kingdom, with the understanding that these results may also include Actors associated with Northern Ireland.

With these limitations in mind, the modified query can be understood as: Which manuscripts from Sir Thomas Phillipps’ collection are also associated with Groups who have a geographic association with the United Kingdom?

To construct our query, we start by finding the manuscripts in Phillipps’ collection. First, we write a VALUES statement to assign Sir Thomas Phillipps’ uri to our first ?owner variable. We follow that with our typical statements establishing the ?manuscript variable and linking that to the first owner. We then write another statement to include manuscripts that list Phillipps in their collection label, since provenance can be indicated in manifestation singletons either through the ?owner or ?collection class. We filter the results based on the collection label, to include the name Phillipps but not the name Halliwell (Phillipps’ son-in-law, whose name is Halliwell-Phillipps and had his own manuscript collection). Then we use the UNION function to connect the results of these two statements.

Now that we have the manuscripts in Phillipps’ collection, we can narrow these results to those manuscripts that have another type of owner, a Group associated with the United Kingdom. We first establish our ?owner2 variable as the ecrm:E74_Group class. We link this second owner to our ?manuscript variable, then get its label and link to its formation event via the ecrm:P98i_was_born predicate. Formation events link to their associated place via the ecrm:P7_took_place_at predicate, which we can mandate for our query to include only places within the United Kingdom.

https://api.triplydb.com/s/S55GFW_8M

PREFIX gvp: <http://vocab.getty.edu/ontology#>
PREFIX ecrm: <http://erlangen-crm.org/current/>
PREFIX efrbroo: <http://erlangen-crm.org/efrbroo/>
PREFIX rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>
PREFIX rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#>
PREFIX skos: <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#>

# Question: How many manuscripts formerly owned by Sir Thomas Phillipps are in British libraries?

SELECT DISTINCT ?manuscript ?owner2 ?owner2_label ?owner2_formation WHERE {
  VALUES ?owner {
    <http://ldf.fi/mmm/actor/bodley_person_73979081> # defined owner as Sir Thomas Phillipps
  }

  { ?manuscript a efrbroo:F4_Manifestation_Singleton ;
  ecrm:P51_has_former_or_current_owner ?owner .
  }
  UNION
  { ?manuscript a efrbroo:F4_Manifestation_Singleton ;
  ecrm:P46i_forms_part_of ?collection .
    ?collection skos:prefLabel ?collection_label .
    FILTER (CONTAINS (?collection_label, "Phillipps"))
    FILTER (!CONTAINS (?collection_label, "Halliwell"))
  }

  ?owner2 a ecrm:E74_Group .
  ?manuscript ecrm:P51_has_former_or_current_owner ?owner2 .
  ?owner2 skos:prefLabel ?owner2_label ;
          ecrm:P98i_was_born ?owner2_formation .
  ?owner2_formation ecrm:P7_took_place_at ?owner2_place .
  ?owner2_place gvp:broaderPreferred* <http://ldf.fi/mmm/place/tgn_7008591> . # uri for United Kingdom

}